4: Iss. Its propounder was Kapila, who authored Samkhya Sutra. [35][36], There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Cārvāka. [51], Vaiśeṣika organized all objects of experience into what they called padārthas (literally: 'the meaning of a word') which included six categories; dravya (substance), guṇa (quality), karma (activity), sāmānya (generality), viśeṣa (particularity) and samavāya (inherence). Paul R. Goldin, Persistent Misconceptions about Chinese Legalism. During later Chinese dynasties like Song Dynasty (960–1297) and the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) as well as in the Korean Joseon dynasty (1392–1897) a resurgent Neo-Confucianism led by thinkers such as Zhu Xi (1130–1200) and Wang Yangming (1472–1529) became the dominant school of thought and was promoted by the imperial state. Western Philosophy has had a tremendous influence on, and has been greatly influenced by, Western Religion, Science, and Politics. Not all Chinese (or Westerners) think this way, but these are observed tendencies.. [95] They were also influenced by Western ideas. [124], Modern Chinese thought is generally seen as being rooted in Classical Confucianism (Jingxue), Neo-Confucianism (Lixue), Buddhism, Daoism, and Xixue (“Western Learning” which arose during the late Ming Dynasty). Siderits, Mark. (New York: Asia Publishing House, 1964. pp. Their theories are extracted from mentions of Ajivikas in the secondary sources of ancient Hindu Indian literature, particularly those of Jainism and Buddhism which polemically criticized the Ajivikas. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world and is traditionally called Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way";[15][16][17] beyond human origins. Animals that survive to breed can pass on their … The Shōwa period (1926–1989) saw the rise of State Shinto and Japanese nationalism. As motivation for his theory, Mozi brought in the Will of Heaven, but rather than being religious his philosophy parallels utilitarianism. This means that the ideas of the Greeks (Hellenes, saviors of Helen of Troy) are placed over and combined with the ideas of the Hebrews. Issues of comparative philosophy (pp. Gary Tartakov (2003). Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural. Their ideas focused on the universality of Indian philosophy (particularly Vedanta) and the unity of different religions. History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). Followers of these two authors are often grouped together under the term Integral thought. Indeed, the central concepts of these fields can be thought of as elements or branches of Western Philosophy. [52], Mīmāṃsā is a school of ritual orthopraxy and is known for its hermeneutical study and interpretation of the Vedas. 1,700–1,050 BCE). [61], Jain philosophy deals extensively with the problems of metaphysics, reality, cosmology, ontology, epistemology, and divinity. However, Schopenhauer was working with heavily flawed early translations (and sometimes second-degree translations), and many feel that he may not necessarily have accurately grasped the Eastern philosophies which interested him.[134]. Eastern students particularly view sheer effort as the primary way to do exceptionally well in school. Jayatilleke, K.N. History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas (2nd ed.). Sāmkhya sources argue that the universe consists of two realities, puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter). Mo also advocated impartial meritocracy in government which should be based on talent, not blood relations. In the Meiji period (1868–1912), the modernist Meirokusha (Meiji 6, formed in 1874) intellectual society promoted European enlightenment thought. Astikshiromani Charvaka (in Marathi). Pollard; Rosenberg; Tignor, Elizabeth; Clifford; Robert (2011). Hansen, Chad. For exaxmple i have learnt that It can be argued that Persian, Arabic and Jewish philosophies are much closer in nature to Western philosophy than Eastern, and the geographical and historical links are much closer. Ross Terril 2003 p. 68. [77][78] Ājīvika considered the karma doctrine as a fallacy. "Some Remarks on the Usage of Renjian Fojiao 人間佛教 and the Contribution of Venerable Yinshun to Chinese Buddhist Modernism". The ... of the early Christians combined features of the two traditions with some ideas of the Zoroastrians from Middle Eastern lands (Persia). The first three categories are defined as artha (which can be perceived) and they have real objective existence. Eastern philosophies are also some of the most intricate and popular on the planet, with many adherents to religious philosophies thousands of years old. Cārvāka or Lokāyata was an atheistic philosophy of scepticism and materialism, who rejected the Vedas and all associated supernatural doctrines. [115] According to Master Mo, persons should care equally for all other individuals, regardless of their actual relationship to them. Mohism was also associated with and influenced by a separate philosophical school known as the School of Names (Míngjiā; also known as 'Logicians'), that focused on the philosophy of language, definition, and logic. "[90] Forces which influenced modernists like Dhammapala and Yin Shun included Enlightenment values and Western Science. Edited by Edward Craig. One of the biggest points of contrast between the two approaches is how students see their role in their own learning. Both western and eastern philosophy has lots of simliarities too. [99], The political thought of Hindu nationalism is also another important current in modern Indian thought. [27], Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE). The love of wisdom knows no separate region; philosophy defies all boundaries and every kind of petty regional definition. Vedānta (meaning "end of the Vedas") or Uttara-Mīmāṃsā, are a group of traditions which focus on the philosophical issues found in the Prasthanatrayi (the three sources), which are the Principal Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita. One was anti-traditional and promoted Western learning and ideas. Later Vaiśeṣikas (Śrīdhara and Udayana and Śivāditya) added one more category abhava (non-existence). [92], Juche, usually translated as "self-reliance", is the official political ideology of North Korea, described by the regime as Kim Il-Sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought". Cambridge University Press. Notable among these are: The term sometimes also includes Middle Eastern traditions of philosophical thought, including: The distinction between Western and Eastern is of course somewhat arbitrary and artificial, and in some respects even misleading. Analayo (2004), Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization. This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major Chinese philosophical schools (Confucianism, Legalism, and Daoism) as well as numerous less influential schools (Mohism, School of Names, School of Yin Yang). [13] Hinduism, with about one billion followers[14] is the world's third-largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. Intellectual? Nyaya survived into the 17th century as Navya Nyaya "Neo-Nyaya", while Samkhya gradually lost its status as an independent school, its tenets absorbed into Yoga and Vedanta. [117], Early forms of Taoism developed in the 4th century BCE, influenced by the cosmological theories of the School of Naturalists and the I Ching. The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In Hsu, Mutsu; Chen, Jinhua; Meeks, Lori. He anticipated that the Upanishads (primary Hindu scriptures) would have a much greater influence in the West than they have had. Mohism is best known for the idea of "impartial care" (Chinese: 兼愛; pinyin: jiān ài; literally: "inclusive love/care"). Section 6. [112] Shen's successor Han Fei (c. 280–233 BCE) synthesized the thought of the other Legalists in his eponymous text, the Han Feizi, one of the most influential Legalist texts which was used by successive Chinese statesmen and rulers as a guide for statesmanship and bureaucratic organization of the imperial state.[113][114]. It is the dominant philosophical tradition in Tibet and Southeast Asian countries like Sri Lanka and Burma. It includes, for example, the classic Hindu rejoinders against Buddhist not-self (anatta) arguments. Tradition is inconsistent, and human beings need an extra-traditional guide to identify which traditions are acceptable. Gerald James Larson (2011), Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass. Very broadly speaking, according to some commentators, Western society strives to find and prove "the truth", while Eastern society accepts the truth as given and is more interested in finding the balance. For millennia the goal of metaphysics, or “first philosophy,” had been to discern the ultimate nature of … p. 6. An Introduction to Confucianism. [62]:182 It continues the ancient Śramaṇa tradition, which co-existed with the Vedic tradition since ancient times. Benjamin Elman, John Duncan and Herman Ooms ed. [76], Original scriptures of the Ājīvika school of philosophy may once have existed, but these are currently unavailable and probably lost. (2012), "Comparative Religion as Cultural Combat: Occidentalism and Relativism in Rajiv Malhotra's Being Different", International Journal of Hindu Studies, 16 (3): 335–348. The contribution of the Jains in the development of Indian philosophy has been significant. Mozi was against Confucian ritualism, instead emphasizing pragmatic survival through farming, fortification, and statecraft. T… Meirokusha philosophers like Mori Arinori, Nishi Amane, and Fukuzawa Yukichi sought ways to combine Western ideas with Japanese culture and values. However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Hindu Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions. Heritage of Eastern Europe culture, social and economical factors. The influence of Marxism on modern Chinese political thought is vast, especially through the work of Mao Zedong, the most famous thinker of Chinese Marxist Philosophy. p. 36. [118], The Dao De Jing (Tao-Te-Ching, c. 4th century BCE), traditionally attributed to Laozi, and the Nan Hua Jing (Zhuang Zi) are considered the key texts of the tradition. Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India. Chad Hansen, Shen Buhai. 2005. Reginald Ray (1999), Buddhist Saints in India, Oxford University Press. Yelle, Robert A. Eastern Students. 1, Article 6. The work of Mahatma Gandhi, Deendayal Upadhyaya, Rabindranath Tagore, Aurobindo, Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya, and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan has had a large impact on modern Indian philosophy.[100]. Prem Pahlajrai, Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington, http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/hilltopreview/vol4/iss1/6, https://www.academia.edu/24999390/Persistent_Misconceptions_about_Chinese_Legalism_, https://books.google.com/books?id=TKowRrrz5BIC&pg=PA68, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-legalism/, http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Shen%20Bu%20Hai.htm, http://www.philosophy.hku.hk/ch/Lord%20Shang.htm, https://books.google.com/books?id=BIgS4p8NykYC&pg=PA44, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/neo-daoism/, "Schopenhauer's Initial Encounter with Indian Thought", China–Japan–South Korea trilateral summit, Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia, China–Japan–Korea Friendship Athletic Meeting, Association of East Asian Research Universities, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG / GCC), Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eastern_philosophy&oldid=995467874, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2015, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 04:54. Neurons, the Basic Elements of Behavior PSY 101 16 January 2011 One of the most basic yet complex systems in the universe is the biological organism, with even the simplest person being considered the most intricate and advanced biological entity alive. Vaiśeṣika is a naturalist school of atomism, which accepts only two sources of knowledge, perception, and inference. The central concern for these schools is the nature of and the relationship between Brahman (ultimate reality, universal consciousness), Ātman (individual soul) and Prakriti (empirical world). By Brian Yan 10C Conclusion Personally I like Eastern Philosophy more because of its different approach on viewing certain ideas and how you need both sides of an idea in the answer. Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life,[note 1] in South Asia. The differences between Eastern and Western thought can be clearly seen in modern society, despite globalization and unifying influences. Their goal was to achieve increased order, security, and stability. [135] For the most part, this is not made explicit within Heidegger's philosophy, apart from in the dialogue between a Japanese and inquirer. Which of those characteristics distinguish Western from Eastern philosophy? ), 2. [119] The first organized form of Taoism, the Tianshi (Celestial Masters') school arose in the 2nd century CE. Carl Jung's idea of synchronicity moves towards an Oriental view of causality, as he states in the foreword to Richard Wilhelm's translation of the I Ching. Aspect 1: Where Thinking Happens — Internally or Externally 66 ff. "Modern Chinese Philosophy," by Yih-Hsien Yu, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [66] It has also been called a model of philosophical liberalism for its insistence that truth is relative and multifaceted and for its willingness to accommodate all possible view-points of the rival philosophies. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSharma2003 (. [67] Jainism strongly upholds the individualistic nature of the soul and personal responsibility for one's decisions, and that self-reliance and individual efforts alone are responsible for one's liberation.[68]. [34], The principal Indian philosophical schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas. The Making of Buddhist Modernism. [53] Because of their focus on textual study and interpretation, Mīmāṃsā also developed theories of philology and the philosophy of language which influenced other Indian schools. [121] Thinkers like He Yan and Wang Bi focused on the deep nature of Tao, which they saw as being best exemplified by the term "Wu" (nothingness, non-being, negativity). Delhi, India: Moltilal Banarsidass (Reprint: 2002). The Nyāya Sūtras was a very influential text in Indian philosophy, laying the foundations for classical Indian epistemological debates between the different philosophical schools. III. Confucianism focuses on humanistic values like familial and social harmony, filial piety (孝, xiào), Rén (仁, "benevolence" or "humaneness") and Lǐ (禮/礼) which is a system of ritual norms that determines how a person should act to be in harmony with the law of Heaven. [54] They primarily held that the purpose of language was to correctly prescribe proper actions, rituals, and correct dharma (duty or virtue). [33] The early modern period saw the flourishing of Navya-Nyāya (the 'new reason') under philosophers such as Raghunatha Siromani (c. 1460–1540) who founded the tradition, Jayarama Pancanana, Mahadeva Punatamakara and Yashovijaya (who formulated a Jain response). Plato provided some of the groundwork for modern Western political philosophy. Arthur Schopenhauer developed a philosophy that was essentially a synthesis of Hinduism with Western thought. While Islam and Christianity manage a system of life centered on one's neighbor, Hindu, Buddhist and Taoist … Hinduism is a categorization of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. xiii + 310. Philosophy East & West. Here, we are giving basic characteristics details of the 6 (Six) ‘Aastika’ schools of Indian Philosophy. Sāmkhya epistemology accepts three of six pramanas (proofs) as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge; pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (word/testimony of reliable sources). Academic? [98] Through the work of Indians like Vivekananda as well as westerners such as the proponents of the Theosophical society, modern Hindu thought also influenced western culture. 112–113. Yao, Xinzhong (2000). Johannes Quack (2014), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press. [122], Other schools rose to prominence throughout Chinese history, such as the Shangqing school during the Tang dynasty (618–907), the Lingbao school during the Song dynasty (960–1279) and the Quanzhen School which develop during the 13th–14th centuries and during the Yuan dynasty. [111] Another central figure, Shang Yang (390–338 BCE), was a leading statesman and reformer who transformed the Qin state into the dominant power that conquered the rest of China in 221 BCE. [5][6][7] The major orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Common Era and the Gupta Empire. [55] Mīmāṃsā is also mainly atheistic, holding that the evidence for the existence of God is insufficient and that the Gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the names, mantras and their power. Christianity is then characterized as Hellenized Hebraism! Michelis, Elizabeth De (2005), A History of Modern Yoga: Patanjali and Western Esotericism, Continuum, Georg, Feuerstein (2002), The Yoga Tradition, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. Some of the key issues involve the comparative importance of eastern intellectuals such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) ... Environmental factors influence organisms to develop new characteristics to ensure survival, thus transforming into new species. Lack of morality and discipline creates misunderstandings in one’s relationship with others and is the cause of emotional problems. Watsuji Tetsurô, a 20th-century Japanese philosopher attempted to combine the works of Søren Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger with Eastern philosophies. Philosophical Foundations. William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). Sikhism is an Indian religion developed by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) in the Punjab region during the Mughal Era. (1951). These are: 1. [120] The most important philosophers of this movement were He Yan, Wang Bi, the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, Ge Hong, and Guo Xiang. The basic questions are the same but as a really broad generality Western philosophy is more likely to be about objective truths—substances, science, logic, math, intellectual analysis, etc. Hengy Chye Kiang 1999. p.v44. Satara: Lokayat Prakashan. Therefore, they sought to investigate the sources of correct knowledge or epistemology. Buddhism's main concern is soteriological, defined as freedom from dukkha (unease). Buddhism began arriving in China during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), through a gradual Silk road transmission and gradually developed distinct Chinese forms (such as Chan/Zen). Islamic philosophy is the Eastern tradition most closely connected to Western philosophy due to a shared Greek philosophical heritage. The traditionalists meanwhile sought to revive and fortify traditional Chinese philosophical schools. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning (pramana) and logic and investigated topics such as Ontology (metaphysics, Brahman-Atman, Sunyata-Anatta), reliable means of knowledge (epistemology, Pramanas), value system (axiology) and other topics. [46] Nyāya holds that human suffering arises out of ignorance and liberation arises through correct knowledge. The administrative thought of Mohism was later absorbed by Legalism, their ethics absorbed into Confucianism and its books were also merged into the Taoist canon, as Mohism all but disappeared as an independent school after the Qin dynasty era. [58] Due to the popularity of the bhakti movement, Vedānta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period. The differences listed below are heavily stereotyped, generalized, and polarized. Beginning in the Song dynasty, Confucian classics were the basis of the imperial exams and became the core philosophy of the scholar-official class. McMahan, David L. (2008). OVERVIEW. Chad Hansen, University of Hong Kong. The German philosopher Martin Heidegger is even reported to have said that only Greek and German languages are suitable for philosophizing. Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge (PDF) (1st ed.). Padmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass. There is no 'eastern' or 'western' philosophy; there is only philosophy. Mohism (Mòjiā; "School of Mo"), was founded by Mozi (c. 470–391 BCE) and his students. [116] Taoism tends to emphasize virtues such as wu wei (effortless action), ziran (naturalness), pu (simplicity), and spontaneity while placing less emphasis on norms and ritual (as opposed to Confucianism). Recent attempts to incorporate Western philosophy into Eastern thought include the Kyoto School of philosophers, who combined the phenomenology of Husserl with the insights of Zen Buddhism. Arvind-pal Singh Mandair (2014). [45] Nyāya also traditionally defended a form of philosophical realism.[47]. In response to colonialism and their contact with Western philosophy, 19th-century Indians developed new ways of thinking now termed Neo-Vedanta and Hindu modernism. Eastern Philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia. However, this is only an interpretation. Western philosophy, history of Western philosophy from its development among the ancient Greeks to the present.. P Bilimoria and JN Mohanty (2003), Relativism, Suffering and Beyond, Oxford University Press. Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed 'Abhidharma'. [103] The tradition developed around the teachings of Confucius (Kǒng Fūzǐ, 孔夫子, "Master Kong", 551–479 BCE) who saw himself as transmitting the values and theology of the ancestors before him. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. pp. [71] They declared the Vedas to be incoherent rhapsodies invented by humans whose only usefulness was to provide a livelihood to priests. Chinese philosophy has several characteristics, including the unity of nature and man, truth and goodness, cognition and behavior, ontology and cosmology, humanity and natural law, the theory of human nature and values and many others. [87] The Dignāga (c. 480–540) school of Pramāṇa promoted a complex form of epistemology and Buddhist logic. In any exploration … Fung, Yiu-ming (2008), "Problematizing Contemporary Confucianism in East Asia", in Richey, Jeffrey, Teaching Confucianism, Oxford University Press. (2001). Traditionally, East Asian cultures and countries in the cultural sphere are strongly influenced by Confucianism, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Vietnam as well as various overseas territories settled predominantly by Overseas Chinese, such as Singapore. [65] "Daoist Philosophy," by Ronnie Littlejohn, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. [42] Elements of proto-Samkhya ideas can however be traced back to the period of the early Upanishads. 185–188. There were two major philosophical trends during this period. John Clayton (2010), Religions, Reasons and Gods: Essays in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Religion, Cambridge University Press. Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. So far as the Jewish factor of western thought goes, the first thing that strikes an eastern thinker is the extreme transcendence of the Jewish God. GJ Larson, RS Bhattacharya and K Potter (2014), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4, Princeton University Press. Of Atheism ( Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse ), Presuppositions India. 123 ] the school is the main text of the Ājīvikas ( 2nd ed. ) is even reported have! Philosophy due to a New planetary consciousness that would bridge this gap Masters ' ) school arose in Will... The West than they have real objective existence the eternal realities second generation published New... Did spend time attempting to translate the Tao Te Ching into German, with. According to Master Mo, persons should care equally for all other individuals, regardless of their own,... 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